Advanced Thermodynamics for Gas Processing & LNG

A major ongoing effort of the Fluid Science and Resources Laboratory is measuring the thermodynamic properties of fluid mixtures at industrially relevant conditions, in particular those relevant to the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Using a suite of precision measurement tools, we provide reference-quality data for vapour-liquid equilibria, solid-liquid equilibria, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, surface tension, and dew point.

This reference-quality data is used to underpin computer simulations that are employed in the design and optimisation of gas processing plants. For example, a key process in a LNG production plant is the scrub column, which is used to remove heavy components from the product stream that are of value (liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs)) or may solidify (C5+) in subsequent processes, such as the main cryogenic heat exchanger (MCHE). The modeling of the scrub column in simulation packages is challenging because it requires numerous calculations of vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for multi-component mixtures at high pressures (4000 to 6500 kPa) over a wide range of temperatures (243 to 323 K). However, there is a scarcity of high quality VLE data relevant to scrub column conditions. Furthermore, the accurate measurement of density (by dual sinker and vibrating tube densimetry) and heat capacity (by differential scanning calorimetry) of scrub column and natural gas liquids is needed to simulate and determine the volumetric flows within the column and the scrub column temperature profile respectively. Since the equations of state (EOS) used in these simulations can only be as accurate as the data to which they are anchored, the Fluid Sciences and Resources Laboratory is focusing on the measurement of binary and multicomponent natural gas mixture properties at scrub column conditions.

The Fluid Science and Resources Laboratory is also working on the development of modifications to cubic equations of state to improve their performance. Complex multi-parameter EOS such as GERG-2008 can be used in the simulation of scrub columns, but to solve the iterative material and energy balances cubic EOS such as Peng-Robinson EOS are more computationally efficient and are still the standard used by industry. However, cubic EOS are particularly deficient at the conditions where scrub column condenser’s operate. We are developing specialized EOS that are both computationally efficient and accurate for the descriptions of multi-component mixture phase behavior in LNG scrub columns.

Publications

2017

Journal

Densities, Dielectric Permittivities, and Dew Points for (Argon+ Carbon Dioxide) Mixtures Determined with a Microwave Re-entrant Cavity Resonator

G Tsankova, PL Stanwix, EF May, M Richter, PL Stanwix, EF May, M Richter

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data

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2017

Journal

Determination of melting temperatures in hydrocarbon mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry

JH Oakley, TJ Hughes, BF Graham, KN Marsh, EF May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics

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2017

Journal

Effective Critical Constants for Helium for Use in Equations of State for Natural Gas Mixtures

D Rowland, TJ Hughes, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data

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2017

Journal

Enthalpy of Vaporization Measurements of Liquid Methane, Ethane, and Methane+ Ethane by Differential Scanning Calorimetry at Low Temperatures and High Pressures

Tauqir H Syed, Thomas J Hughes, Eric F May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data

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2017

Journal

High Pressure Multi-Component Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data and Model Predictions for the LNG Industry

Thomas J. Hughes, Jerry Y. Guo, Corey J. Baker, Darren Rowland, Brendan F. Graham, Kenneth N. Marsh, Stanley H. Huang, Eric F. May

AIChE J.

2017

Journal

High pressure multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium data and model predictions for the LNG industry

Thomas J. Hughes, Jerry Y. Guo, Corey J. Baker, Darren Rowland, Brendan F. Graham, Kenneth N. Marsh, Stanley H. Huang, Eric F. May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics

Reference link

2017

Journal

Surface Tension and Critical Point Measurements of Methane+ Propane Mixtures

Kumarini N. Seneviratne, Thomas J. Hughes, Michael L. Johns, Kenneth N. Marsh, Eric F. May

Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics

Reference link

2017

Journal

Surface Tension and Critical Point Measurements of Methane+ Propane Mixtures

KN Seneviratne, TJ Hughes, ML Johns, KN Marsh, EF May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics

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2017

Journal

Visual Measurements of Solid Liquid Equilibria and Induction Times for Cyclohexane + Octadecane Mixtures at Pressures to 10 Mpa

Arman Siahvashi, Saif Z.S. Al-Ghafri, Jordan H. Oakley, Thomas J. Hughes, Brendan F. Graham, Eric F. May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data

2017

Journal

Visual Measurements of Solid–Liquid Equilibria and Induction Times for Cyclohexane+ Octadecane Mixtures at Pressures to 5 Mpa

Arman Siahvashi, Saif ZS Al-Ghafri, Jordan H Oakley, Thomas J Hughes, Brendan F Graham , Eric F May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data

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2016

Journal

Density Measurements of Methane + Propane Mixtures at Temperatures between (256 and 422) K and Pressures from (24 to 35) MPa

A Karimi, TJ Hughes, M Richter, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 61 (8), p2782 - 2790

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2016

Journal

Determination of melting temperatures in hydrocarbon mixtures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

JH Oakley, TJ Hughes, BF Graham, KN Marsh, EF May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics In Press

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2016

Journal

Extending the GERG-2008 equation of state: Improved departure function and interaction parameters for (methane + butane)

D Rowland, TJ Hughes, EF May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 97, p206 - 213

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2016

Journal

Saturated Phase Densities of (CO2 + H2O) at temperatures from (293 to 450) K and pressures up to 64 MPa

EC Efika, R Hoballah, X Li, EF May, M Nania, Y Sanchez-Vicente, JPM Trusler

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 93, p347 - 359

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2016

Journal

Vapor Pressure of Dichlorosilane, Trichlorosilane, and Tetrachlorosilane from 300 K to 420 K

KN Marsh, TK Morris, GP Peterson, TJ Hughes, Q Ran, JC Holste

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 61 (8), p2799 - 2804

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2015

Journal

Gas–Gas Dispersion Coefficient Measurements Using Low-Field MRI

Honari, SJ Vogt, EF May, ML Johns

Transport in Porous Media 106, p21 - 35

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2015

Journal

Phase equilibrium measurements of (methane+ benzene) and (methane+ methylbenzene) at temperatures from (188 to 348) K and pressures to 13MPa

TJ Hughes, ME Kandil, BF Graham, KN Marsh, SH Huang, EF May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 85, p141 - 147

Reference link

2015

Journal

Reference Quality Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Data for the Binary Systems Methane + Ethane, + Propane, + Butane, and + 2-Methylpropane, at Temperatures from (203 to 273) K and Pressures to 9 MPa

EF May, JY Guo, JH Oakley, TJ Hughes, BF Graham, KN Marsh, SH Huang

Journal of Chemical Engineering Data 60, p3606 - 3620

Reference link

2015

Journal

Saturated phase densities of (CO2+ H2O) at temperatures from (293 to 450) K and pressures up to 64MPa

EC Efika, R Hoballah, X Li, EF May, M Nania, Y Sanchez-Vicente, JPM Trusler

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 93, p347 - 359

Reference link

2015

Journal

Viscosity and Dew Point Measurements of {xCH4 + (1 – x)C4H10} for x = 0.9484 with a Vibrating-Wire Viscomete

CR Locke, D Fang, PL Stanwix, TJ Hughes, G Xiao, ML Johns, ARH Goodwin, KN Marsh, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 60 (12), p3688 - 3695

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2015

Journal

Viscosity of {xCO2+(1− x) CH4} with x= 0.5174 for temperatures between (229 and 348) K and pressures between (1 and 32) MPa

CR Locke, PL Stanwix, TJ Hughes, ML Johns, ARH Goodwin, KN Marsh, G Galliero, EF May

The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 87, p162 - 167

Reference link

2014

Journal

Analysis of Available Data from Liquefied Natural Gas Rollover Incidents to Determine Critical Stability Ratios

P Arjomandnia, MO Tade, V Pareek, EF May

AIChE Journal 60, p362 - 374

Reference link

2014

Journal

Determination of the Relative Permittivity, εr, of Octane at Temperatures between (303 and 393) K and Pressures below 25 MPa with a Concentric Cylinder Capacitor at a Frequency of 1 kHz

L Pirolli, ARH Goodwin, KN Marsh, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 59, p1609 - 1613

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2014

Journal

Improved Methods for Gas Mixture Viscometry Using a Vibrating Wire Clamped at Both Ends

CR Locke, PL Stanwix, TJ Hughes, A Kisselev, ARH Goodwin, KN Marsh, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 59, p1619 - 1628

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2014

Journal

Physical apparatus parameters and model for vibrating tube densimeters at pressures to 140 MPa and temperatures to 473 K

EF May, WJ Tay, M Nania, A Aleji, S Al-Ghafri, JPM Trusler

Review of Scientific Instruments 85, p095111

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2014

Journal

Simulating the capture of CO2 from natural gas: New data and improved models for methane+ carbon dioxide+ methanol

TJ Hughes, ME Kandil, BF Graham, EF May

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 31, p121 - 127

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2014

Journal

Viscosity of {x CH4+(1–x) C3H8} with x= 0.949 for Temperatures between (200 and 423) K and Pressures between (10 and 31) MPa

PL Stanwix, CR Locke, TJ Hughes, ML Johns, ARH Goodwin, KN Marsh, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 60, p118 - 123

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2014

Journal

Viscosity Ratio Measurements with Capillary Viscometers

RF Berg, EF May, MR Moldover

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 59, p116 - 124

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2012

Journal

Isobaric Heat Capacity Measurements of Liquid Methane, Ethane, and Propane by Differential Scanning Calorimetry at High Pressures and Low Temperatures

TH Syed, TJ Hughes, KN Marsh, EF May

Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 57, p3573 - 3580

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